- Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean.

- Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, North Korea.

- ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia;
- subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north;
- winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia;
- summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.

Natural hazards:
- permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development;
- volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands;
- volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula;
- spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia.

Currency: Ruble
Code: RUB
Since: 1998

Exchange rates at December 31st:

1 EUR = 79.4605 RUB (2018)
1 EUR = 68.8668 RUB (2017)
1 EUR = 63.8111 RUB (2016)
1 EUR = 79.6972 RUB (2015)
1 EUR = 68.3427 RUB (2014)
1 EUR = 44.9699 RUB (2013)
1 EUR = 40.2286 RUB (2012)
1 EUR = 41.6714 RUB (2011)
1 EUR = 40.3331 RUB (2010)



Location map
author: OCHA/ReliefWeb


Russia FY2018 Market Portfolio

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